Although they are somewhat related, these two phrases are not synonymous and are completely different. The major difference between the two is; problem solving is a method while decision making is a process. Problem solving, as the name implies, is solving a problem. Meaning, it is a method wherein a group or an individual makes something positive out of a problem.
Often, they are "under the gun", stressed and very short for time. Consequently, when they encounter a new problem or decision they must make, they react with a decision that seemed to work before. Not all problems can be solved and decisions made by the following, rather rational approach.
However, the following basic guidelines will get you started. Note that it might be more your nature to view a "problem" as an "opportunity". Therefore, you might substitute "problem" for "opportunity" in the following guidelines. Define the problem This is often where people struggle.
They react to what they think the problem is. Ask yourself and others, the following questions: Where is it happening? How is it happening?
When is it happening? With whom is it happening? To be an effective manager, you need to address issues more than people. Why is it happening? It may be helpful at this point to use a variety of research methods.
If the problem still seems overwhelming, break it down by repeating steps until you have descriptions of several related problems. Verifying your understanding of the problems: It helps a great deal to verify your problem analysis for conferring with a peer or someone else.
If you discover that you are looking at several related problems, then prioritize which ones you should address first.
Note the difference between "important" and "urgent" problems.
Often, what we consider to be important problems to consider are really just urgent problems. Important problems deserve more attention. Understand your role in the problem: Your role in the problem can greatly influence how you perceive the role of others.
Or, you are feel very guilty about your role in the problem, you may ignore the accountabilities of others. Otherwise, people tend to be inhibited about offering their impressions of the real causes of problems. Write down a description of the cause of the problem and in terms of what is happening, where, when, how, with whom and why.
Brainstorm for solutions to the problem. Very simply put, brainstorming is collecting as many ideas as possible, then screening them to find the best idea. A wonderful set of skills used to identify the underlying cause of issues is Systems Thinking.
Select an approach to resolve the problem When selecting the best approach, consider: Which approach is the most likely to solve the problem for the long term?
Which approach is the most realistic to accomplish for now? Do you have the resources? Do you have enough time to implement the approach? What is the extent of risk associated with each alternative?
The nature of this step, in particular, in the problem solving process is why problem solving and decision making are highly integrated."Most formal definitions characterize critical thinking as the intentional application of rational, higher order thinking skills, such as analysis, synthesis, problem recognition and problem solving, inference, and evaluation" (Angelo, , p.
6). From solving problems at work to facing challenging personal situations, critical thinking is a valuable skill for everyone to master.
Improving critical thinking skills will shape you into a more rational and disciplined thinker, reducing your own prejudice and bias, while helping you understand other viewpoints. A form of logical thinking in Problem Solving Heuristics thinking May be helpful under limited time And/or systematic rational decision making is not possible.
Traditional Problem-Solving Process 1. Identify the problem. 2. Gather the data. 3. Rational Versus Organic Approach to Problem Solving Rational A person with this preference often prefers using a comprehensive and logical approach similar to the guidelines in the above section.
According to a definition analysis by Kompf & Bond (), critical thinking involves problem solving, decision making, metacognition, rationality, rational thinking, reasoning, knowledge, intelligence and also a moral component such as reflective thinking.
Critical thinkers therefore need to have reached a level of maturity in their. which shows the main steps in a formal, rational, problem-solving model. Problem Recognition, Definition, and Analysis Problem recognition, definition, and analysis are key processes in effec-.