A Countercultural History of London since By Nicky Charlish Sex, drugs, and rock and roll are all stuff that come to mind when people talk of the counterculture. We are all used to endless television documentaries where the sixties—considered to be the age when it came into its own—are symbolised by grainy black-and-white shots of mini-skirted girls shrieking at the Beatles and acid-addled hippies doing their thing at rock concerts. It would be great if someone could give us a break from all that old stuff. But is there anything new left to say?
After receiving several complaints about the lack of consistency in the dye colors, Chevreul determined that the issue was not chemical but optical and focused his attention on exploring optical color mixing.
He published his groundbreaking findings in The Laws of Contrast of Colour where he discussed the concept of simultaneous contrast the colors of two different objects affect each othersuccessive contrast a negative afterimage effectand mixed contrast.
Chevreul's studies in color became the most widely used and influential An analysis of the black since 1945 manual of the 19th century with a significant and long-lasting impact on the fine and industrial arts.
As well as being the first to create a hemispherical color model displaying 72 normal tone hue scales, his exploration of color harmonies is an underlying principle in personal color analysis.
In the s, Chevreul's ideas were prescribed for an American audience lacking any education in color harmony.
An American painter and art teacher at the Massachusetts Normal Art Schoolhe had visited the tapestry works of Chevreul and studied color in France.
With the use of his own unique inventions, including the Photometer that measures object luminanceMunsell started to determine color spaces and standardize the way color was organized and defined. InMunsell published his first of three books on color, A Color Notation where he discussed his color theory referencing three color dimensions: Prior to the Munsell Color Theory, the intensity of color was defined as 'saturation' in the art and scientific community.
Munsell determined that saturation encompassed two different dimensions, value and chroma, where chroma defines the difference between a pure hue and a pure grey. Munsell paid close attention to the human visual system and human response to color, being sensitive to its inclusion in his mapping of three-dimensional color space.
InMunsell founded the Munsell Color Companyfor the purpose of improving color communication and education. The company is now owned by X-Rite who specialize in color calibration.
Itten[ edit ] Johannes Itten — was a Swiss-born artist and art educator who expounded upon the principles of simultaneous contrast which Chevreul set forth in his treatise. He valued individual artistic expression  and inwhile teaching a class assignment on color harmony, he noticed his students were choosing colors, lines and orientation that showed themselves "as they are", which led him to formulate the concept of "subjective color".
In his book The Art of Color,  Itten examined two different approaches to understanding the art of color: Subjective feelings and objective color principles. Itten described "subjective color" as "the aura of the person.
A high contrast brunette will choose dark colors and high contrast, "suggesting a lively and concentrated personality and intense feeling.
In his book, Itten noted that, "Every woman should know what colors are becoming to her; they will always be her subjective colors and their complements. In his final chapter titled 'Composition', Itten spoke of bringing two or more colors together in such a way that they harmonize to give an expression unambiguous and full of character.
Dorr — was an American artist who, inobserved the harmonious effects of paint colors when grouping those of either a blue or yellow undertone. In Chicago, Dorr began working on furniture design using his own color theory of undertones and developed his ideas on color psychology.
After working on a textile group for a manufacturer, he became a professional color consultant for cosmetic companies. Each palette in The Color Key Program contain colors per fan. Orange and magenta are the color indicants of yellow and blue undertones respectively.
Dorr's Color Key Program took all races into consideration and no race was limited to any one Key palette. After moving to California in the late s, Dorr taught courses and gave lectures on his Color Key Program until his death in Caygill[ edit ] Suzanne Caygill — was an American fashion designer and color theorist who developed the Caygill Method of Color Analysis.
A milliner, poet, dress designer and night club singer, as a young adult, Caygill turned her attention to color in and devoted the rest of her life to creating individual style guides and color palettes for clients and teaching design seminars.
Caygill may have been influenced by her association with Edith Head, wardrobe designer and consultant to Hollywood studios and stars.
In the s, Caygill starred in a self-improvement television program on fashion and relationships, "Living With Suzanne," which aired on CBS in Los Angeles, and began to teach seminars in which she described her work on style, personality, line, and color.
Inshe published Color: In this book, Caygill identified a wide range of sub-groups within each season, and gave them descriptive names such as "Early Spring", "Metallic Autumn", or "Dynamic Winter", each with its own set of special characteristics.
Caygill believed in the fundamental link between style, color and a person's personality. Most agree, for example, on the following basic points: Most rely upon a color system in which the colors are divided into four groups of harmonious colors which are said to match with the four seasons of the year.
The seasons are, to some degree, arbitrary, and it sometimes happens that someone will be on the cusp of two seasons. But, as Carole Jackson insists, "with testing, one palette will prove to be better [more harmonious] than the other. Bernice Kentner warns, "Remember, do not rely on hair coloring to find your Season!
She noted that there are three primary pigments that give the skin its tone: The three pigments--melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin join one another to produce our flesh tones. Like Chevreul and Suzanne Caygill, Kentner drew her ideas from the art of interior decorating.
She wrote, "It is possible to color coordinate your home so it is pleasing to the eyeBlack Popular Music in Britain Since provides the first broad scholarly discussion of this music since The book critically examines key moments in the history of black British popular music from s jazz to s soul and reggae, s Jungle and the sounds of Dubstep and Grime that have echoed through the s.
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