Ethical Foundations Political philosophy has its beginnings in ethics: Since people are by nature sociable — there being few proper anchorites who turn from society to live alone — the question follows as to what kind of life is proper for a person amongst people. The philosophical discourses concerning politics thus develop, broaden and flow from their ethical underpinnings. To take a few examples:
Social Chauvinism Aggressive or fanatical patriotism, particularly during time of war, in support of one's own nation versus other nation s. During WWI, nearly every political party took a social-chauvinist stand; with few exceptions. Most Socialists gave up their beliefs in favour of "defense of the fatherland," and turned to social-chauvinism; most notably the German Social Democratic Party.
They stressed that the only violence that should be used is the violence necessary to overthrow one's own government. They agitated tirelessly in their nation to show that common social relations united workers across any national boundaries and that the only blood the proletariat should shed is the blood to gain their freedom.
Social Contract The Social Contract is a foundation myth invented by Jean-Jacques Rousseau as a legitimation for the authority of the state. According to this myth, originally human beings lived in a state of nature, free and independent of one another. The creation of private property and inequality created antagonisms which needed to be moderated.
Thus free people came together and made a contract in which they all agreed to arrogate law-making power to the state. See Failure of socialism in the united Social Contract Hegel also rejected the myth of the social contract, responding to the myth of a voluntary contract with his master-slave narrativein which he showed that the state arose out of slavery and domination, but the through the recognition of citizens in a just constitution, the modern state could represent progress towards freedom in which the state was an expression of the universal will, not a limitation on the freedom of individuals.
But the social contract is mythology from beginning to end: At the very best, by means of working class organisation, the state can be transformed into an arena of struggle in which the contending classes in civil society can vie for influence.
Only the kind of immediate, practical measures of democracy which Marx described in the Paris Commune can give legitimacy to any form of rule. Every society contains classethnic, gender and other differences, from which arise various kinds of conflict. Naturally, some of these conflicts need to be moderated if the society is to survive, and thus in every society, individuals with various differences have to in some way be socialised and integrated into the institutions and fabric of that society.
This is as true of a hypothetical post-revolutionary socialist society as it is of capitalism ; to suppose that a society could exist which does not require any process of social control and integration is utopian. The methods of social control and integration may be: The agents of social control and integration may be: Social control and integration also act in different frames, principally international, national and communal.
Methods of Social control and integration Regulation means the application of a particular set of laws or rules, implicitly including punishment for those who violate the rules.
See the Evgeny Pashukanis Archive for a Marxist approach to law and regulation. Alternatively, the market may require an element of regulation to make it work, for example, pollution may be controlled by applying a tax to the sale, production or use of polluting materials.
The Greenhouse Gas Coupon system, whereby countries have to pay for the greenhouse gases they produce, or get paid for reductions, is a prime example of this method of social control. Capitalism prefers this to the alternative, for example, of regulating greenhouse gas production, legally mandating companies to reduce production, and jailing the bosses of comapnies which do not comply.
Among the most important tools for using ideology for Social Control are the school system attendance at which is compulsoryreligion, and mass media.
See the Marxism and Education subject archive for more on this, and chapter one of Capital for more on bourgeois ideology.
Democratisation means extending the forms of social decision-making so that dissenting or conflicting sections of society are included in the process of decision-making, and either consensus is arrived at, or a minority is reconciled to the decision due to having participated in making the decision.
See the entry on Democracy for more on this. Agents of Social control and integration The state is the institution with a monopoly on the legitimate use of force in a society.Nancy Pelosi Is In Denial: Socialism Is Where It's At In It's hard for Red Scare language to stick when socialists like Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez are pushing popular policies like universal health care.
In order to understand the disaster that is unfolding in Venezuela, we need to journey through the most recent century of our history and look at how our institutions have changed over time.
Socialism - Socialism after Marx: By the time of Marx’s death in , many socialists had begun to call themselves “Marxists.” His influence was particularly strong within the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), which was formed in by the merger of a Marxist party and a party created by Marx’s German rival, Ferdinand Lassalle.
Roots of socialism in America. The roots of socialism in America can be traced to the arrival of German immigrants in the s when Marxian socialist unions began, such as the National Typographic Union in , United Hatters of , and Iron Moulders` Union of North America in Roots of socialism in America.
The roots of socialism in America can be traced to the arrival of German immigrants in the s when Marxian socialist unions began, such as the National Typographic Union in , United Hatters of , and Iron Moulders` Union of North America in Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and workers' self-management of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them, though social rather than individual ownership is the common element shared by its.