Grass fully cursive Regular non-cursive Regular script is considered the archetype for Chinese writing, and forms the basis for most printed forms. In addition, regular script imposes a stroke orderwhich must be followed in order for the characters to be written correctly. Simplified ChineseTraditional Chineseand Debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters In the 20th century, written Chinese divided into two canonical forms, called simplified Chinese and traditional Chinese. Simplified Chinese was developed in mainland China in order to make the characters faster to write especially as some characters had as many as a few dozen strokes and easier to memorize.
The Year China Discovered Americaaspires to rewrite world history on a grand scale. He maintains that Gavin Menzies four Chinese fleets, comprising twenty-five to thirty ships and at least 7, persons each, visited every part of the world except Europe between and According to Menzies, proof of the passage of the Ming fleets to the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, and Polynesia is overwhelming and indisputable.
In addition, Chinese seamen toured the temples and palaces of the Maya center of Palenque in Mexico, hunted walruses and smelted copper in Greenland, mined for lead and saltpeter in northern Australia, and established trading posts for diamonds along the Amazon and its tributaries.
Inasmuch as Menzies believes that he has collected a veritable mountain of evidence, he is not disheartened by skepticism about some of his astonishing assertions. Menzies intends his work for the general reader, and his style is vigorous, clear, and informal.
Most strikingly, he makes his own search for evidence of the Ming fleets the narrative framework for recounting their achievements. He also brings his narrative to life by recounting his own experiences in places visited by the fleets of Zheng He, including savoring rum toddies and roast lobster on Guadeloupe beaches, braving the dangers of the Great Barrier Reef of Australia, and rounding the Cape of Good Hope into the South Atlantic.
This approach makes for a lively, engaging work that surely will attract many readers who otherwise would never open a page tome on Chinese maritime enterprise and European exploration.
The good news conveyed by is that there are big bucks in world history: The bad news is that reaping such largesse evidently requires producing a book as outrageous as Menzies flouts the basic rules of both historical study and elementary logic.
He misrepresents the scholarship of others, and he frequently fails to cite those from whom he borrows. His White Whale is Eurocentric historiography, which celebrates Columbus a thief and fraud, pp.
Instead, the cruel, barbaric West, secretly and fraudulently capitalizing on Chinese achievements, imposed its dominion around the globe pp. Menzies is not interested in the well-known, much-studied voyages of Zheng He, and he ignores the extensive literature on them. He singles out the sixth voyage because it was the only one in which Zheng He returned to China early, leaving his subordinate eunuch-captains to carry out their mission of returning tribute envoys to their kingdoms.
This circumstance offers Menzies a window of opportunity to imagine that the armada left the Indian Ocean to seek new lands in the Atlantic and Pacific. Since he claims that the mariners sailed about 40, miles in their world-girdling odysseys, two and a half years is just barely enough time for them to journey such a vast distance while also charting coasts, mining ore, meeting alien peoples, and founding colonies.
Menzies does not address the awkward question of why Ma, a stickler for detail and an aficionado of novelties, never mentions the wondrous excursion of his comrades to the Americas and Australia. ThroughoutMenzies places great emphasis on imperial officials in destroying many of the documents regarding the Ming expeditions in order to prevent a renewal of the project.
In a manner of speaking, the author sails the ships of Zheng He through that supposed evidentiary void. The last of the squadrons returned to China on 8 Octoberhaving completed their journey of some 11, miles in the expected time, about one year and three months after departing Sumatra.
The author asserts that Zheng He arrived home in November and that his captains completed their errands in the Indian Ocean in July of the same year, a mere three months after departing Sumatra. Menzies has no basis for this estimate since an average speed can be calculated only for the — expedition, for which a detailed itinerary survives.
Naturally, speeds differed considerably, depending on the time of year and the passage being traversed. In the seventh voyage, distances covered varied from a high of miles per day 3. Taking into account the surviving evidence for the timetable of the sixth expedition, it is impossible. As instructed by the pope, Conti told the story of his travels to the humanist Poggio Bracciolini —who incorporated it into his De Varietate Fortunae, completed in To establish the relevance of Conti, Menzies splices into one quotation a passage from Poggio and another from Pero Tafur c.
Sinai Egypt inwhen the Venetian was planning to return home p. Since only Chinese ships possessed the latter, it is generally assumed that Conti actually described Chinese vessels, evidently without knowing their origins.
Still, Menzies takes for granted that Conti was in Calicut in when the Ming armada anchored there, and since both Conti and Ma Huan describe similar scenes in Calicut, Menzies surmises that Conti must have met the Chinese chronicler in that port p.
Based on these presumptions, Menzies creates an incredible scenario: In his first two chapters pp. Although the portrait lacks any documentation, it provides the foundation for virtually all the evidence Menzies later cites for Chinese exploration. His depiction, then, does not represent mere scene setting aimed at engaging the reader—a rhetorical tactic that perhaps does not call for footnotes—but assumptions read back into the narrative itself.
In effect, the author stocks the ships on their exodus from China with the very items that will confirm that the mariners reached their far-flung destinations.
Menzies claims, however, that thousands of horses were transported, many being used to stock the Americas and to explore the interior of Australia. Although Needham states that there is no evidence that the Chinese knew how to desalinate seawater, Menzies asserts that a ship wrecked off the Oregon coast is reported to have carried paraffin wax, hence he regards the rumor as implicit verification of his contentions about both desalination and hordes of junk-journeying steeds.
Chinese sharpeis must have sailed with the Ming flotilla because an animal resembling the dog appears in a Mexican painting discovered in the nineteenth century pp.
One audacious sharpei, Menzies proposes, absconded from the junks in the Falklands and mated with an indigenous fox, giving birth to a now-extinct animal called a war-rah—DNA results, the author promises, will be posted on the website p. He suggests that the Chinese captured a few giant South American sloths or mylodons in Patagonia.
He further supposes that one of the sloths aroused itself enough to escape Chinese incarceration in Australia because a stone carving near Brisbane he thinks looks something like the Patagonian beast p.
It is impossible to keep track of how many self-confirming assumptions are at work in such citations of alleged evidence.Informal Letter In this post I Will explain You and give a suitable sample of an informal letter.
INFORMAL LETTER This is a letter written to people who are very familiar to us such as close friends, family members and acquaintances, it can also be called Friendly or personal Letter.
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his ex-classmate already accepted and transfer to . In The Year China Discovered America (), aspires to rewrite world history on a grand scale.
He maintains that Gavin Menzies)four Chinese fleets, comprising twenty-five to thirty ships and at least 7, persons each, visited every part of the world except Europe between and Why Your Job Cover Letter Sucks (and what you can do to fix it).