All IPT assessments were made blind to the cognitive results. Child maltreatment Child maltreatment was identified prospectively based on the following: home observations at days, 3, 6, and 9 months and twice at 12 months; laboratory observations at 9, 12 two visits18, 24, and 42 months; maternal interviews throughout assessment periods; and reviews of medical records and child protection records at 24 and 64 months.
Children were classified as maltreated between 0 and 24 months if there was evidence of any of the following: a physical abuse, defined as parental acts resulting in physical damage e. Validation for the identification of maltreatment cases has been previously reported.
Children exposed to severe maternal partner violence were classified as IPT-exposed, given prior research showing a similar magnitude of IQ effects among children exposed to high levels of domestic violence as among maltreated children.
SES was based on the mean standardized scores from at least two of three sources: the revised Duncan Socioeconomic Index household score,[ 1718 ] maternal education, and household income.
Greater scores indicate higher SES. Birth-related factors A variable reflecting the presence or absence of birth complications was based on data extracted from labor and delivery records.
Birthweight was also extracted from medical records. The scale has demonstrated moderate stability across time,[ 23 ] and prior research has documented associations between child IQ and HOME subscales. Higher scores indicate greater stimulation. Cognitive Outcomes The cognitive battery conforms to recent suggestions for assessing cognitive trajectories in longitudinal studies of children.
Associations among the study variables were tested in bivariate correlational analyses. To test whether IPT exposure was associated with cognitive scores from 24 to 96 months, mixed effects models with a random intercept were implemented.
These models accounted for repeated cognition measures within participants, took advantage of the longitudinal nature of the data, increased statistical power when compared to analyzing separately at each time pointand enhanced possible inferences regarding associations between IPT exposure and cognitive functioning over time.
An indicator variable was included in the model that allowed IPT in preschool to affect cognitive outcomes only at 64 and 96 months. This ensured that IPT in preschool could not affect month cognitive outcomes.
In the first step of the model, a 3-way interaction term among IPT in infancy, IPT in preschool, and time of cognitive testing i. Once found non-significant, the 3-way interaction was removed, and the remaining 2-way interactions were tested. Any non-significant two-way interaction terms were removed from the model.
In the final step, covariates were added to test the effects of IPT exposure independent of other known risk factors, including child gender, race, SES, maternal IQ, birthweight, birth complications, and cognitive stimulation in the home.
SES was included as a time-varying covariate in the model, with SES during pregnancy used for predicting month cognitive scores, SES at 42 months for predicting month cognitive scores, and SES at 96 months for predicting month cognitive scores.
In addition, a main effect term for time was included to test whether there were differences in mean cognitive scores over time. A set of multiple regression analyses were also run using comparable models to predict cognitive scores separately at each age 24, 64, and 96 months.
Results from these analyses produced similar conclusions and are available on-line. Missing data in the predictor, covariate, and outcome variables were imputed using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method[ 29 ] of multiple imputation, implemented in SAS PROC MI, which produces unbiased results if the data are missing at random.
One hundred thirty-one participants had complete data for all variables; 75 had missing data for at least one variable.
Ten datasets were imputed, each with observations. Results from the imputed datasets did not differ qualitatively from results from the complete-case dataset, and both sets produced similar conclusions.
Results based on imputed data are presented. Table 2 displays mean cognitive test scores by IPT exposure. The remaining pairwise comparisons were not significantly different. Table 3 presents the bivariate correlation coefficients among the study variables.Understanding the Impact of Trauma Trauma has a powerful capacity to shape a child’s physical, emotional, and intellectual development, especially when the trauma is experienced early in life.
Trauma can profoundly alter an individual’s life course and diminish innate resilience. Continual exposure to. research has since found that childhood trauma has a significant impact on the emotional, behavioural, cognitive, social and physical function of children (Perry, Pollard, Blakley, Baker & Vigilante, ).
An understanding of brain development and how trauma can. The Impact of Trauma on a Child’s Ability to Learn you think of all the other areas and experiences that students have, you begin to these experiences in childhood can lead to a cascade of social, emotional and cognitive.
The Impacts of Early Childhood Trauma on Social, Emotional and Behavioral Development. Brooks Collins -Gaines, caninariojana.com, LPC, ECMHC. Gabriela Mance, caninariojana.com, LPC.
Learning Outcomes Interpersonal trauma exposure and cognitive development in children to age 8 years: A longitudinal study. 1. Introduction. Childhood trauma is a complex experience that can include emotional, physical and sexual abuse as well as emotional and physical neglect (Dannlowski et al., ).It is associated with a higher number of negative life events in adulthood and with psychiatric disorders at all stages of development (Etain et al., ,, Nanni et al., ).Cited by: Running head: CHILDHOOD TRAUMA AND THE BRAIN i EARLY CHILDHOOD TRAUMA AND THE IMPACT ON THE DEVELOPING BRAIN childhood trauma can be defined as an experience or repeated experiences that leave the child neglect.
Studies have shown that high or low levels of stress hormones (e.g. cortisol) impact the emotional state of the child and can.