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A survey was carried out among manufacturing employees of various occupational levels in manufacturing companies in the northern region of Malaysia.
We collected data by distributing questionnaires to participants, with the assistance of human resource department. We asked them to indicate how often they know whether any of their workmates engaged in different types of interpersonal deviance.
Regression analysis showed that human resource practices of job description, employment security, and internal career opportunities have significant relationships with interpersonal deviance. Hierarchical regression indicated that the Oya uum thesis of job satisfaction have a direct relationship with interpersonal deviance.
The dimensions also mediated the relationship between human resource practices and interpersonal deviance. Implications to managers and practitioners are discussed. HR practices, job satisfaction, interpersonal deviance, Malaysia, organizational effectiveness Received 16 August Accepted 1 April O rganizations are increasingly concerned with the prevalence of aggressive behaviour, bullying, harassment, and incivility at work.
As aggressive behaviour, bullying, harassment, and incivility are essentially directed or targeted at individuals within or outside the organization, Robinson and Bennett referred to them as interpersonal deviance.
In their review, Bartlett and Bartlett emphasized the need for organizations to address hostile behaviours because they bring adverse impacts on the organization and its members. They noted that such behaviour has been found to reduce productivity, increase recruitment costs, lower employee morale, increase lawsuits owing to wrongful dismissal, and damage reputation.
It is therefore reasonable to speculate that interpersonal deviance that occurs in a work setting may be influenced by the work environment. In the present study, we considered job satisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism in the HR-interpersonal deviance, thus filling the gap in the literature.
By combining these two distinct streams of research, we theorized the linkage of HR practices—job satisfaction—interpersonal deviance.
By doing so, we hope to enhance our theoretical understanding on the dynamics and mechanisms of job satisfaction in explaining the effect of HR practices on interpersonal deviance. Towards this end, we organized this paper as follows: Then, a brief method of how we carried out the study is offered.
Next, we present the results obtained from the data collected. Finally, we discuss the findings in relation to the literature.
While the former is referred to as organizational deviance, the latter is known as interpersonal deviance. Examples of organizational deviance include employee theft, absenteeism, and tardiness.
Instances of interpersonal deviance include behaviours such as making fun of others, playing mean pranks, making racial slurs, cursing others, and being rude. In their study to develop and validate uncivil workplace behaviour measure among adult employees in Australia, Martin and Hine demonstrated that victims of workplace incivility are likely to report low job satisfaction, low levels of psychological well- being, health dissatisfaction, high level of psychological distress, and high level of work withdrawal.
While spreading rumours is generally considered minor, physical violence is major. With the advancement of information and communication technology in particular the internet, interpersonal deviance does not only occur offline i.
Receiving hate emails is an example of such behaviour.
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While there is rich literature on specific type of interpersonal deviance such as workplace bullying, sexual harassment, workplace violence, and workplace incivility, literature on general interpersonal deviance is scant. As such, wherever possible, we use the general literature on workplace deviance or on specific type of interpersonal deviance to develop our hypotheses.
Although HR practices have been labelled differently in different studies, the core HR practices applied in organizations appear to be staffing, training and development, performance appraisal, and compensation and benefit management.
But empirical evidence on the contribution of HR practices to interpersonal deviance is sparse. Using a basic ability—motivation—opportunity performance model, he posited that organizations with programmes directed towards promoting internal labour market i.
He found support that HR systems characterized by greater use of internal labour markets are associated with lower frequencies of reported interpersonal deviance behaviours than those that rely on external labour markets.
While managers are an important source of information, their knowledge may not be accurate as most of the time such behaviours are either not reported Edwin, ; Langton, or largely go unnoticed Deblieux, The effects of HR practices on general workplace deviance were investigated by Shamsudin, Subramaniam, and Ibrahim among manufacturing employees in Malaysia.
They demonstrated that job description, job security, performance appraisal, and internal career opportunities were negatively related to workplace deviance. Tessema and Soeters found that favourable HR practices enhance employee competence, satisfaction, and role clarity.
As a result, employees could contribute better towards the accomplishment of organizational goals.The spatial distribution of axonal projections descending from rat field CA1 to thalamus and hypothalamus was analyzed previously with the PHAL method [Cenquizca, L.A., Swanson, L.W.
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