It persisted as the dominant approach in Western moral philosophy until at least the Enlightenment, suffered a momentary eclipse during the nineteenth century, but re-emerged in Anglo-American philosophy in the late s. Neither of them, at that time, paid attention to a number of topics that had always figured in the virtue ethics tradition—virtues and vices, motives and moral character, moral education, moral wisdom or discernment, friendship and family relationships, a deep concept of happiness, the role of the emotions in our moral life and the fundamentally important questions of what sorts of persons we should be and how we should live. Its re-emergence had an invigorating effect on the other two approaches, many of whose proponents then began to address these topics in the terms of their favoured theory. It has also generated virtue ethical readings of philosophers other than Plato and Aristotle, such as Martineau, Hume and Nietzsche, and thereby different forms of virtue ethics have developed Slote ; Swantona.
An Essay on Metaphilosophy Published: July 16, Nicholas Rescher, Philosophical Dialectics: Reviewed by Stephen Hetherington, University of New South Wales The topic of this brief book by Nicholas Rescher is one to which, I suspect, many philosophers accord insufficient attention -- namely, philosophical progress.
How achievable is it? Rescher is remarkably well-placed to report on far-flung boundaries and buried details of philosophy's historical and conceptual domain; which is what he does here, albeit somewhat gesturally.
He identifies various features of how, inevitably, philosophy proceeds; and he draws implications as to how philosophical claims are therefore limited in what knowledge they can supply.
Here are some details of Rescher's thinking. For him, philosophy is always a practice, a back-and-forth of considered positions on fundamental questions. Always, that back-and-forth is guided by methodological meta-principles bearing upon "informative adequacy" pp. These are unavoidable for good philosophy.
They do not "merely reflect the presumptions and predilections of a place and time" p. This is due to "the purposive nature of philosophy as the discipline it is": And … [these principles'] requirements reflect conditions under which alone the aims of the philosophical enterprise can be realized in an efficient and effective way.
It is this serviceability for the very goal structure of the enterprise that endows those philosophical principles with their unconditional cogency.
And how are those principles implemented within philosophy? Even individual philosophers, it seems, incur this predicament: We strike our toes on "cognitive dissonance" ibid.
Socrates would be proud of his legacy.
Examples abound, and Rescher mentions several -- starting with ones about virtue, knowledge, meaning, explanation, and the problem of evil. How should a philosopher react to these aporiai? Precisely as philosophers do react: We posit distinctions, talking of two senses of X, say.
This should involve skill. We need to avoid formal flaws of distinction imprecision, nonexclusivity, or nonexhaustiveness, p.
If we do avoid such failings, there are two results p. Is 2 a failing? Rescher does not seem to believe so.
If anything, we do not make our philosophical thinking complex enough: And so, in their striving for maximum generality the generalizations of philosophy are virtually always overgeneralizations involving a certain amount of oversimplification.
We must distinguish this from that, then this-this from that-this, and so on -- delving ever deeper into the domain, perpetually describing new distinctions. The result is not merely a series of distinctions, though. Rescher accords philosophy a Hegelian nature p.
Distinctions preserve, even as they discard; and philosophy thrives:Virtue ethics is currently one of three major approaches in normative ethics. It may, initially, be identified as the one that emphasizes the virtues, or moral character, in contrast to the approach that emphasizes duties or rules (deontology) or that emphasizes the consequences of actions (consequentialism).
comprehensive and partially annotated list of books about Herbert Marcuse, compiled by Harold Marcuse. A study in philosophical methodology aimed at providing a clear view of the scope and limits of philosophical inquiry.
While the pursuit of philosophy “of” studies—of science, of art, of politics—has blossomed, the philosophy of philosophy remains a comparatively neglected domain. Triepels Slagwerk - Geleen Limburg,Uw Drumspecialist, Drumstel kopen, boomwhacker lessen. Contemporary Metaphilosophy. What is philosophy?
What is philosophy for? How should philosophy be done? These are metaphilosophical questions, metaphilosophy being the study of the nature of philosophy.
|Philosophical Dialectics: An Essay on Metaphilosophy||Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 6: Reason and Revolution cited on p.|
|Metaphilosophy - Wikipedia||If one were to look at a tree one day, and the tree later lost a leaf, it would seem that one could still be looking at that same tree.|
works by contemporary pragmatists. W. V. Quine Sidney Hook Hilary Putnam Richard Rorty Nicholas Rescher Paul Kurtz Joseph Margolis Cornel West. W.
V. Quine () Visit the Cambridge School of Pragmatism and the Quine website.. Quine, W. V. A System of Logistic.