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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Wax esters are important ingredients in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, lubricants and other chemical industries due to their excellent wetting property. Since the naturally occurring wax esters are expensive and scarce, these esters can be produced by enzymatic alcoholysis of vegetable oils.
In an enzymatic reaction, study on modeling and optimization of the reaction system to increase the efficiency of the process is very important. The classical method of optimization involves varying one parameter at a time that ignores the combined interactions between physicochemical parameters.
RSM is one of the most popular techniques used for optimization of chemical and biochemical processes and ANNs are powerful and flexible tools that are well suited to modeling biochemical processes.
Results The coefficient of determination R2 and absolute average deviation AAD values between the actual and estimated responses were determined as 1 and 0. The predicted optimum condition was: The actual experimental percentage yield was The order of effective parameters on wax ester percentage yield were; respectively, time with Conclusion Though both models provided good quality predictions in this study, yet the ANN showed a clear superiority over RSM for both data fitting and estimation capabilities.
Background Wax esters are long chain esters that are derived from fatty acids and alcohols with chain lengths of 12 carbons or more. The compounds have many potential applications due to their excellent wetting behavior at interfaces [ 1 ] and a non-greasy feeling when applied on skin surfaces.
Wax esters are important ingredients in cosmetic formulations cleansers, conditioners and moisturizerspharmaceuticals as an anti foaming agent in the production of penicillinlubricants, plasticizers and polishes and other chemical industries [ 2 ].
Natural waxes originate from animals, vegetables and minerals. Many of the important commercial waxes contain rather high percentages of saturated wax esters, such as beeswax. Other raw materials for saturated and unsaturated wax esters are sperm whale and jojoba oil [ 2 ].
Since the naturally occurring wax esters are expensive and limited in access, the need to synthesize the compound has grown. Wax esters have been synthesized via chemical [ 3 ] and enzymatic reactions [ 4 ].
Enzymatic synthesis uses lower temperatures than chemical synthesis [ 2 ]. Wax esters can be produced by alcoholysis of vegetable oils such as palm oil. Palm oil consists of triacylglycerides, which are a combination of glycerol and different fatty acids.
Enzymatic synthesis of wax esters from rapeseed fatty acid methyl ester [ 2 ] and lipase-catalyzed alcoholysis of crambe and camelina oil [ 5 ] have been reported. One of the most important stages in a biological process is modeling and optimization to increase the efficiency of the process [[ 67 ] and [ 8 ]].
The classical method of optimization involves varying one parameter at a time and keeping the other constant. This technique is not only time-consuming but also does not depict the complete effects of the parameters in the process and ignores the combined interactions between the physicochemical parameters.
In contrast, response surface methodology RSM is an effective statistical technique for developing, improving, and optimizing of complex process [[ 6 ] and [ 9 ]]. RSM is a collection of statistical and mathematical techniques that can be used to define the relationships between the response and the independent variables [ 10 ].
RSM defines the effect of the independent variables, alone or in combination, in the processes.
In addition to analyzing the effects of the independent variables, this experimental methodology also generates mathematical model. Although RSM has so many advantages, and has successfully been applied to study and optimize the enzyme synthesis of flavor ester [[ 7 ] and [ 11 ]] and biodiesel fatty acid alkyl ester [ 12 ] and also optimizing enzyme production from microorganisms [[ 13 - 15 ] and [ 16 ]], it is hard to say that it is applicable to all optimization and modeling studies.
Similar observations were made on the data of some RSM articles [[ 1718 ] and [ 19 ]]. The past decade has seen a host of data analysis tools based on biological phenomena developed into well-established modeling techniques, such as artificial intelligence and evolutionary computing.
Artificial neural networks ANNs are now the most popular artificial learning tool in biotechnology, with applications ranging from pattern recognition in chromatographic spectra and expression profiles, to functional analyses of genomic and proteomic sequences [ 20 ].
An artificial neural network is an information processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information. Indeed an artificial neural network is a massively interconnected network structure consisting of many simple processing elements capable of performing parallel computation for data processing.
The fundamental processing element of artificial neural networks the artificial neuron, unit or nodes simulates the basic functions of biological neurons [[ 6 ] and [ 21 ]]. In the present investigation, RSM and ANN analysis of enzymatic synthesis of wax esters from palm oil and oleyl alcohol was carried out using a commercial immobilized lipase.Ageing Study of Palm Oil and Coconut Oil in the Presence of Insulation Paper for Transformers Application.
The reaction yield of 92% was reported for palm oil ester synthesis after 5 h reaction at 50 °C, with ratio of oleyl alcohol to palm oil and enzyme amount of 16 wt% of palm oil (Keng et al., ). The efficiency of RSM was proven by applying similar optimized conditions of the .
Download Citation on ResearchGate | Evaluating the Physiochemical Properties of Emollient Esters for Cosmetic Use | S ensory properties in skin care for-mulations are produced mainly by emollients.
The selection of an optimal neural-network architecture and topology is of critical importance for a successful application.
Several neural-network architecture and topologies (the number of hidden neurons, connection types, learning algorithms and transfer functions of input and hidden layers) were tested for the estimation and prediction of lipase-catalyzed synthesis of palm-based wax ester. Palm Olein, the liquid fraction of palm oil will be used in the synthesis of palm ester instead of the other fractions (Malaysian Palm Oil Council, 12 November ).
Thus, the synthesis, physicochemical properties and thermal stability of palm ester will be carried out specifically focusing on alm Olein.
Newly synthesized palm esters for cosmetics industry. As the leading agricultural crop of Malaysia, palm oil's unique composition makes it versatile in its application.
Palm oil consists of triglycerides, a combination of glycerol and different fatty acids. The reaction yield of 92% was reported for palm oil ester synthesis after 5.