Introducing the Problem Journalist and best-selling author Lee Strobel commissioned George Barna, the public-opinion pollster, to conduct a nationwide survey. The survey included the question "If you could ask God only one question and you knew he would give you an answer, what would you ask? If God is all-powerful, all-knowing and perfectly good, why does he let so many bad things happen?
Mussolini - as he would like to have been remembered You're the top! All he had in his pockets was a cheap nickel medallion of Karl Marx. Following a spell of vagrancy, Mussolini found a job as a bricklayer and union organizer in the city of Lausanne. Quickly achieving fame as an agitator among the Italian migratory laborers, he was referred to by a local Italian-language newspaper as "the great duce [leader] of the Italian socialists.
The great duce's fame was so far purely parochial. Upon his return to Italy, young Benito was an undistinguished member of the Socialist Party.
He began to edit his own little paper, La Lotta di Classe The Class Struggleferociously anti-capitalist, anti-militarist, and anti-Catholic.
He took seriously Marx's dictum that the working class has no country, and vigorously opposed the Italian military intervention in Libya. Jailed several times for involvement in strikes and anti-war protests, he became something of a leftist hero.
Before turning 30, Mussolini was elected to the National Executive Committee of the Socialist Party, and made editor of its daily paper, Avanti! The paper's circulation and Mussolini's personal popularity grew by leaps and bounds.
Mussolini's election to the Executive was part of the capture of control of the Socialist Party by the hard-line Marxist left, with the expulsion from the Party of those deputies members of parliament considered too conciliatory to the bourgeoisie.
The shift in Socialist Party control was greeted with delight by Lenin and other revolutionaries throughout the world. From toMussolini was the Che Guevara of his day, a living saint of leftism.
Handsome, courageous, charismatic, an erudite Marxist, a riveting speaker and writer, a dedicated class warrior to the core, he was the peerless duce of the Italian Left. He looked like the head of any future Italian socialist government, elected or revolutionary.
Inwhile still editor of Avanti! Like many such socialist journals founded in hope, it aimed to create a highly-educated cadre of revolutionaries, purged of dogmatic illusions, ready to seize the moment.
Two of those who collaborated with Mussolini on Utopia would go on to help found the Italian Communist Party and one to help found the German Communist Party. In October and NovemberMussolini switched to a pro-war position. He resigned as editor of Avanti!
It was as scandalous as though, 50 years later, Guevara had announced that he was off to Vietnam, to help defend the South against North Vietnamese aggression. Italy entered the war in Mayand Mussolini enlisted. In he was seriously wounded and hospitalized, emerging from the war the most popular of the pro-war socialists, a leader without a movement.
Post-war Italy was hag-ridden by civil strife and political violence. Sensing a revolutionary situation in the wake of Russia's Bolshevik coup, the left organized strikes, factory occupations, riots, and political killings. Socialists often beat up and sometimes killed soldiers returning home, just because they had fought in the war.
Assaulting political opponents and wrecking their property became an everyday occurrence. Mussolini and a group of adherents launched the Fascist movement 6 in The initiators were mostly men of the left: The Fascists adopted the black shirts 8 of the anarchists and Giovinezza Youththe song of the front-line soldiers.
Apart from its ardent nationalism and pro-war foreign policy, the Fascist program was a mixture of radical left, moderate left, democratic, and liberal measures, and for more than a year the new movement was not notably more violent than other socialist groupings.
Including many patriotic veterans, the squads were more efficient at arson and terror tactics than the violently disposed but bumbling Marxists, and often had the tacit support of the police and army. By Fascists had the upper hand in physical combat with their rivals of the left. The democratic and liberal elements in Fascist preaching rapidly diminished and in Mussolini declared that "The world is turning to the right.
Marching into some of the major cities, blackshirt squads quickly and forcibly suppressed the strike, and most Italians heaved a sigh of relief. This gave the blackshirts the idea of marching on Rome to seize power. As they publicly gathered for the great march, the government decided to avert possible civil war by bringing Mussolini into office; the King "begged" Mussolini to become Prime Minister, with emergency powers.A Manifesto Against the Enemies of Modernity.
by James A. Lindsay and Helen Pluckrose; Posted on August 22, February 2, ; This document is very long and detailed so a brief bulleted summary is provided below for those who don’t have the hour it takes for a careful read.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason) was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, the "Century of Philosophy"..
French historians traditionally place the Enlightenment between (the year that Louis XIV died) and (the beginning of the French Revolution). Also, “it starts to look like me and the feminists” should be “looks like I”. And “untitled” doesn’t really make sense. And if biology is a hard science, it’s on the extreme soft edge of hard sciences.
Just about a year into the Trump presidency, at a meeting with members of Congress to try to negotiate legislation on immigration, the president demanded to know “Why are we having all these people from shithole countries come here?,” specifically African countries, rather than more immigrants.
Immanuel Kant - Critic of Leibnizian rationalism: During the s Kant became increasingly critical of Leibnizianism.
According to one of his students, Kant was then attacking Leibniz, Wolff, and Baumgarten, was a declared follower of Newton, and expressed great admiration for the moral philosophy of the Romanticist philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Arius and Athanasius were archrivals of the Arian controversy.
Arius was the leading father in Arianism whilst Athanasius was the defender of the Nicene Theology for orthodox Christianity against Arianism. As Arianism rejects the divinity of Christ, salvation to mankind was at stake.