Origins[ edit ] Post-war territorial changes in Europe and the formation of the Eastern Bloc, the western border is the " Iron Curtain ". While Roosevelt was confident he could deal with Stalin after the war, Truman was much more suspicious.
The United States provided large-scale grants to Western Europe under the Marshall Plan -leading to a rapid economic recovery. The Soviet Union refused to allow its satellites to receive American aid.
Instead, the Kremlin used local Communist parties, and the Red army, to control Eastern Europe in totalitarian fashion. They asked the United States to take over their role in Greece. With bipartisan support in Congress, Truman responded with the Truman Doctrine in Truman followed the intellectual leadership of the State Department, which, especially under the guidance of George F.
Kennancalled for containment of Soviet communist expansion. The idea was that internal contradictions, such as diverse nationalism, would ultimately undermine Soviet ambitions. Austria and Finland were neutral and demilitarized. The Kremlin did not control Yugoslavia, which had a separate communist regime under Marshall Tito ; They had a permanent bitter break in In Asia, however, there was much more movement.
The Communists took over China in and the nationalist government moved to the offshore island of Formosa Taiwanwhich came under American protection.
Local communist movements attempted to take over all of Korea and Vietnam Communist hegemony covered one third of the world's land while the United States emerged as the world's more influential superpower, and formed a worldwide network of military alliances.
The United States envisioned the new United Nations as a Wilsonian tool to resolve future troubles, but it failed in that purpose. Containment For NATO, containment of the expansion of Soviet influence became foreign policy doctrine; the expectation was that eventually the inefficient Soviet system would collapse of internal weakness, and no "hot" war that is, one with large-scale combat would be necessary.
Eisenhowerbut was opposed by the isolationists led by Senator Robert A. China had thus moved from a close ally of the U.
The Truman administration responded with a secret plan, NSC 68designed to confront the Communists with large-scale defense spending. The Russians had built an atomic bomb by —much sooner than expected; Truman ordered the development of the hydrogen bomb. Two of the spies who gave atomic secrets to Russia were tried and executed.
France was hard-pressed by Communist insurgents in the First Indochina War. President Truman immediately and unexpectedly implemented the containment policy by a full-scale commitment of American and UN forces to Korea. He did not consult or gain approval of Congress but did gain the approval of the United Nations UN to drive back the North Koreans and re-unite that country in terms of a rollback strategy.
The war became a stalemate, with over 33, American dead andwounded  but nothing to show for it except a resolve to continue the containment policy. Truman fired MacArthur but was unable to end the war. Eisenhower in campaigned against Truman's failures of "Korea, Communism and Corruption," promising to go to Korea himself and end the war.
By threatening to use nuclear weapons inEisenhower ended the war with a truce that is still in effect. McCarthyism Inwell before McCarthy became active, the Conservative Coalition in Congress passed the Taft Hartley Actdesigned to balance the rights of management and unions, and delegitimizing Communist union leaders.
The challenge of rooting out Communists from labor unions and the Democratic Party was successfully undertaken by liberals, such as Walter Reuther of the autoworkers union  and Ronald Reagan of the Screen Actors Guild Reagan was a liberal Democrat at the time.
Nixon playing a central role, accused Alger Hissa top Roosevelt aide, of being a Communist spy, using testimony and documents provided by Whittaker Chambers.
Hiss was convicted and sent to prison, with the anti-Communists gaining a powerful political weapon.
McCarthy dominated the media, and used reckless allegations and tactics that allowed his opponents to effectively counterattack. Irish Catholics including conservative wunderkind William F. Kennedy a job with McCarthy.
McCarthy had talked of "twenty years of treason" i. When, inhe started talking of "21 years of treason" and launched a major attack on the Army for promoting a Communist dentist in the medical corps, his recklessness proved too much for Eisenhower, who encouraged Republicans to censure McCarthy formally in The Senator's power collapsed overnight.
Kennedy did not vote for censure. Some famous celebrities such as Charlie Chaplin left the U. McCarthyism included investigations into academics and teachers as well.In the s Americans started to question the America’s culture of materialism, consumerism and Political norms.
In their quest into. AMERICANA: "Images of the American Suburbia" by Lívia Szélpál / Lívia Szélpál is a PhD Student in the doctoral program in comparative history of Central, Southeastern, and Eastern Europe, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary.
s • s • s • s • s • s • s • s All images, videos and any other multimedia shown on RetroWaste is in fair use context. The original company or artist retains all copyrights. Historians tend to portray the s as a decade of prosperity, conformity, and consensus, and the s as a decade of turbulence, protest, and disillusionment.
These stereotypes are largely true, though, as with everything in life, there are exceptions to this perspective. Dramatic Changes in American Culture During the s. Dramatic Changes in American Culture During the s The United States began to change drastically in the 50s.
Many people began coming out to stand up to old ways of life. This started the wheel turning for the civil rights movement.
Culture in The s. BACK; NEXT ; The '60s. Bell-bottoms and incense, long hair, free love and psychedelic rock—the s are commonly reduced to a set of easy-to-replicate images, phrases, and styles. Once branded as immoral, anarchistic, and revolutionary, the counterculture of the s is now playfully imitated.