This period saw the transition from a relatively rigid system of legal proofs which predetermined when there was sufficient evidence for a condemnation, to a system based on the free evaluation of the evidence by either professional judges or lay jurors. It is the central contention of this article that the reform of the criminal law of evidence can, to an important extent, be explained by two larger underlying ideological changes. These new ideas derived from a change in the epistemological and the political-constitutional discourses between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries.
The Irish Civil war was a conflict between Irish nationalists in over whether or not to accept the Anglo-Irish Treaty. The Treaty came about as a result of both political agitation and guerrilla warfare by the Irish Republican movement, organised respectively in Sinn Fein and the Irish Republican Army between and The British military garrison was to be withdrawn and the RIC police disbanded.
The Treaty gave most of Ireland substantial independence but dissolved the Republic declared in For all of these reasons, the Treaty was viewed as a step backwards by many Irish Republicans and nationalists. It was narrowly passed by the Dail or republican parliament in Januarybut the President of the Republic, Eamon de Valera and two of his ministers resigned in protest.
Those who had signed the Treaty, headed by Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith formed a Provisional Government to oversee the handover of power from the British to the new Irish state. However, what brought about civil war was the split in the ranks of the IRA.
The two sides almost came to blows over who would occupy Limerick. In Junethe first elections were held in the Free State. Outbreak of War Just ten days later, a confluence of events conspired to spark civil war out of the tensions over the Treaty.
The ultimatum ran out and pro-Treaty troops opened fire on the Courts with artillery borrowed from the British on June 28, This action caused IRA units around the country to take sides and most, especially in the south, sided with the anti-Treaty faction, now headed by Liam Lynch.
Eamon de Valera initially rejoined the IRA as an ordinary volunteer but later, in Octoberset up a clandestine republican government to oppose the Free State.
Both sides developed rival narratives to support their position. Anti-Treaty strongholds in Cork and Kerry were taken by sea in a series of landings in July and Augustmeaning that by the end of that month, it appeared that the pro-Treaty forces had won.
Guerrilla war However the anti-Treaty IRA attempted to wage a guerrilla campaign against the Free State like that which they had mounted against the British. In Augustthis claimed its most prominent victim when Michael Collins, head of the Provisional Government and Commander in Chief of the National Army was killed in an ambush in his native Cork.
In an effort to crush this campaign, the government embarked on a policy of executions of captured guerrillas. The first were executed in Dublin in Novemberfollowed by senior anti-Treaty propagandist Erskine Childers.
In all between 77 and 81 republicans were officially executed and another assassinated or summarily killed in the field. A great number had been imprisoned — around 12, No surrender was called however and no formal end to the war was ever negotiated.
Aside from the military confrontation between pro and anti-Treatyites, the absence of effective government and policing throughout the civil war saw a great deal of social and criminal violence.
Three of those executed by the Free State were armed criminals rather than guerrillas. After the conflict however, the Free State managed to establish an unarmed police corps, the Garda Siochana.
The civil war left many damaging legacies and remained taboo in Ireland for many years After the end of the war in Marchseveral senior National Army officers threatened a mutiny in protest against demobilization of the army and the lack of progress towards a united Ireland.
The war left the Irish nationalist parties highly polarised and embittered. The total casualty list has still not been definitively determined but appears to be about 1, killed with some thousands more injured.
The anti-Treatyites entered politics as Fianna Fail in and came to power peacefully in — despite widespread rioting between the IRA and the pro-Treaty Blueshirt movement. They and Fine Gael pro-Treaty dominated Irish politics for most of the 20th century.Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) (Fatah Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Brigades, Black September, and Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims) The Abu Nidal Organization (ANO)(Fatah Revolutionary.
The publisher of the Journal on European History of Law is the STS Science Centre Ltd. seated in London. The European Society for History of Law closely cooperates with the STS Science Centre Ltd.
and helps with editing the journal. John Dorney lays out the need-to-know facts about the Irish Civil war of For more detailed articles see, The Irish Story, Civil War archive. The Irish Civil war was a conflict between Irish nationalists in over whether or not to accept the Anglo-Irish Treaty.
Republican Army (IRA) was formed in The Official IRA declared a cease-fire in the summer of , and subsequently the term IRA began being used for the organization that developed from the 'Provisional' IRA. Organized into small, tightly knit cells under the leadership of the Army Council the IRA has remained largely unchanged.
The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) Essay. The Provisional Irish Republican Army When one thinks of terrorism, the conflict in Israel or other Middle Eastern countries usually comes to mind. Although true to some extent there are many other groups in the world that fall under the category of Îterroristsâ.
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