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WILSON During its first years, the American republic was not thought to have a "bureaucracy," and thus it would have been meaningless to refer to the problems" of a "bureaucratic state.
Though only about 3, at the end of the Federalist period, there were about 95, by the time Grover Cleveland assumed office inand nearly half a million by The great political and constitutional struggles were not over the power of the administrative apparatus, but over the power of the President, of Congress, and of the states.
The Founding Fathers had little to say about the nature or function of the executive branch of the new government.
The Constitution is virtually silent on the subject and the debates in the Constitutional Convention are almost devoid of reference to an administrative apparatus. This reflected no lack of concern about the matter, however. Management by committees composed of part-time amateurs had cost the colonies dearly in the War of Independence and few, if any, of the Founders wished to return to that system.
The argument was only over how the heads of the necessary departments of government were to be selected, and whether these heads should be wholly subordinate to the President or whether instead they should form some sort of council that would advise the President and perhaps share in his authority.
In the end, the Founders left it up to Congress to decide the matter. There was no dispute in Congress that there should be executive departments, headed by single appointed officials, and, of course, the Constitution specified that these would be appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The only issue was how such officials might be removed. After prolonged debate and by the narrowest of majorities, Congress agreed that the President should have the sole right of removal, thus confirming that the infant administrative system would be wholly subordinate—in law at least—to the President.
Had not Vice President John Adams, presiding over a Senate equally divided on the issue, cast the deciding vote in favor of presidential removal, the administrative departments might conceivably have become legal dependencies of the legislature, with incalculable consequences for the development of the embryonic government.
The State Department, the first to be created, had but nine employees in addition to the Secretary. The War Department did not reach 80 civilian employees until ; it commanded only a few thousand soldiers.
Only the Treasury Department had substantial powers—it collected taxes, managed the public debt, ran the national bank, conducted land surveys, and purchased military supplies.
Because of this, Congress gave the closest scrutiny to its structure and its activities. The number of administrative agencies and employees grew slowly but steadily during the 19th and early 20th centuries and then increased explosively on the occasion of World War I, the Depression, and World War II.
It is difficult to say at what point in this process the administrative system became a distinct locus of power or an independent source of political initiatives and problems. What is clear is that the emphasis on the sheer size of the administrative establishment—conventional in many treatments of the subject—is misleading.
The government can spend vast sums of money—wisely or unwisely— without creating that set of conditions we ordinarily associate with the bureaucratic state. For example, there could be massive transfer payments made under government auspices from person to person or from state to state, all managed by a comparatively small staff of officials and a few large computers.
And though it may be harder to believe, the government could in principle employ an army of civilian personnel without giving rise to those organizational patterns that we call bureaucratic. This would require a vast increase in the number of teachers and school rooms, but almost all of the persons added would be performing more or less identical tasks, and they could be organized into very small units e.
Though there would be significant overhead costs, most citizens would not be aware of any increase in the "bureaucratic" aspects of education—indeed, owing to the much greater time each teacher would have to devote to each pupil and his or her parents, the citizenry might well conclude that there actually had been a substantial reduction in the amount of "bureaucracy.
Max Weber, after all, warned us that in capitalist and socialist societies alike, bureaucracy was likely to acquire an "overpowering" power position.
Conservatives have always feared bureaucracy, save perhaps the police. Humane socialists have frequently been embarrassed by their inability to reconcile a desire for public control of the economy with the suspicion that a public bureaucracy may be as immune to democratic control as a private one.
Liberals have equivocated, either dismissing any concern for bureaucracy as reactionary quibbling about social progress, or embracing that concern when obviously nonreactionary persons welfare recipients, for example express a view toward the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare indistinguishable from the view businessmen take of the Internal Revenue Service.
These are not the only problems that arise because of bureaucratic organization.THE RISE OF THE BUREAUCRATIC STATE The bureaucracy has been constantly growing since its beginning. At the end of the Federalist period, only 3, civilian officials were appointed; then in about half a million were employees in the bureaucracy.
The rise of the bureaucratic state. not thought to have a “bureaucracy,” and thus it would have been meaningless to refer to the “problems” of a “bureaucratic state.” There were, of course, Unlimited access to intelligent essays on the nation’s affairs. Review J.Q. Wilson’s article, “The Rise of the Bureaucratic State” and the power point.
Then develop an essay in which you discuss his chronicle of federal regulatory activities from the s to the s within the contexts of two (2) federalism models, which you think are most applicable.
Review J.Q. Wilson’s article, “The Rise of the Bureaucratic State” and the power point. Then develop an essay in which you discuss his chronicle of federal regulatory activities from the s to the s within the contexts of two (2) federalism models, which you think are most applicable. THE RISE OF THE BUREAUCRATIC STATE The bureaucracy has been constantly growing since its beginning.
At the end of the Federalist period, only 3, civilian officials were appointed; then in about half a million were employees in the bureaucracy.
However, the size of the bureaucracy is completely insignificant. The Bureaucracy. A chief characteristic of the administrative state is the development of a new and relatively independent power center in government, typically referred to as “the bureaucracy,” that is difficult for chief executives, legislatures, and courts to control.